Amazing Facts

National Flag of India! Amazing Facts

Every free nation of the world has its own flag. It is a symbol of a free
country. The National Flag of India was designed by Pingali Venkayyaand
and adopted in its present form during the meeting of Constituent
Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before India's
independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. It served as the
national flag of the Dominion of India between 15 August 1947 and 26
January 1950 and that of the Republic of India thereafter. In India,
the term "tricolour" refers to the Indian national flag.

The National flag of India is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron
(kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom
in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is
two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel
which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which
appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its
diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24
Evolution of the Tricolour
It is really amazing to see the various changes that our National Flag
went through since its first inception. It was discovered or recognised
during our national struggle for freedom. The evolution of the Indian
National Flag sailed through many vicissitudes to arrive at what it is
today. In one way it reflects the political developments in the nation.
Some of the historical milestones in the evolution of our National Flag
involve the following:

Unofficial flag of India in 1906

The Berlin committee flag, first raised by Bhikaiji Cama in 1907

The flag used during the Home Rule movement in 1917

The flag unofficially adopted in 1921

The flag adopted in 1931.
This flag was also the battle ensign of the Indian National Army

The present Tricolour flag of India
The first national flag in India is said to have been hoisted on August 7,
1906, in the Parsee Bagan Square (Green Park) in Calcutta now Kolkata.
The flag was composed of three horizontal strips of red, yellow and
The second flag was hoisted in Paris by Madame Cama and her band of exiled
revolutionaries in 1907 (according to some inl9OS). This was very
similar to the first flag except that the top strip had only one lotus
but seven stars denoting the Saptarishi. This flag was also exhibited
at a socialist conference in Berlin.
The third flag went up in 1917 when our political struggle had taken a definite
turn. Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak hoisted it during the Home
rule movement. This flag had five red and four green horizontal strips
arranged alternately, with seven stars in the saptarishi configuration
super-imposed on them. In the left-hand top corner (the pole end) was
the Union Jack. There was also a white crescent and star in one corner.
During the session of the All India Congress Committee which met at Bezwada
in 1921 (now Vijayawada) an Andhra youth prepared a flag and took it to
Gandhiji. It was made up of two colours-red and green-representing the
two major communities i.e. Hindus and Muslims. Gandhiji suggested the
addition of a white strip to represent the remaining communities of
India and the spinning wheel to symbolise progress of the Nation.
The year 1931 was a landmark in the history of the flag. A resolution was
passed adopting a tricolor flag as our national flag. This flag, the
forbear of the present one, was saffron, white and green with Mahatma
Gandhi's spinning wheel at the center. It was, however, clearly stated
that it bore no communal significance and was to be interpreted thus.
On July 22, 1947, the Constituent Assembly adopted it as Free India
National Flag. After the advent of Independence, the colours and their
significance remained the same. Only the Dharma Charkha of Emperor
Asoka was adopted in place of the spinning wheel as the emblem on the
flag. Thus, the tricolour flag of the Congress Party eventually became
the tricolour flag of Independent India.
Colours of the Flag:
In the national flag of India the top band is of Saffron colour,
indicating the strength and courage of the country. The white middle
band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The last band is
green in colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the
The Chakra:
This Dharma Chakra depicted the "wheel of the law" in the Sarnath Lion
Capital made by the 3rd-century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. The chakra
intends to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.
Flag Code On 26th January 2002, the Indian flag code was modified
and after several years of independence, the citizens of India were finally allowed to
hoist the Indian flag over their homes, offices and factories on any
day and not just National days as was the case earlier. Now Indians can
proudly display the national flag any where and any time, as long as
the provisions of the Flag Code are strictly followed to avoid any
disrespect to the tricolour. For the sake of convenience, Flag Code of
India, 2002, has been divided into three parts. Part I of the Code
contains general description of the National Flag. Part II of the Code
is devoted to the display of the National Flag by members of public,
private organizations, educational institutions, etc. Part III of the
Code relates to display of the National Flag by Central and State
governments and their organisations and agencies.
There are some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the
26 January 2002 legislation. These include the following:
The Do's:
    The National Flag may be hoisted in educational institutions (schools,
    colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to inspire respect for the
    Flag. An oath of allegiance has been included in the flag hoisting in
  1. A member of public, a private organization or an educational institution
    may hoist/display the National Flag on all days and occasions,
    ceremonial or otherwise consistent with the dignity and honour of the
    National Flag.

  2. Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of all private citizens to fly the
    flag on their premises.

The Don'ts
  1. The flag cannot be used for communal gains, drapery, or clothes. As far as
    possible, it should be flown from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of
    the weather.

  2. The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor
    or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the hood, top, and sides or
    back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.

  3. No other flag or bunting can be placed higher than the flag. Also, no
    object, including flowers or garlands or emblems can be placed on or
    above the flag. The tricolour cannot be used as a festoon, rosette or

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